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Types Of Gas Turbine And Working Principle

What Is Turbine?

  • A Turbine Is A Machine That Uses The Movement Of A Fluid (Like Water, Steam, Or Gas) To Turn A Shaft. This Rotational Energy Can Be Used In Many Different Ways, Such As To Make Electricity, Move Things And Run Industrial Processes.
 

What Is a Gas Turbine?

  • A Gas Turbine, Which Is Sometimes Called A Combustion Turbine, Is A Type Of Internal Combustion Engine That Constantly Turns The Chemical Energy Stored In Fuel Into Mechanical Energy. It Is Used To Make Electricity, Fly Planes, Move Ships, And Other Industrial Work. It Includes The Stages Of Compression, Combustion, Expansion And Exhaust.

1). Compression:

  • A Set Of Axial Or Centrifugal Compressors Shrinks The Amount Of Air That Comes In. The Compressor Squeeze And Heat The Air Before It Goes Into The Combustion Chamber.
  •  For More Energy To Be Released During Combustion, The Air Must Be Squeezed So That A Higher Concentration Of Molecules Can Be Burned.

2). Combustion:

  • At Very High Pressure And Temperature, Compressed Air Is Pumped Into The Combustion Chamber. Natural Gas, Diesel, Or Aviation Fuel Are Added To The Mix As Fuel For The Combustion Chamber.
  • Spark Plug Or Igniters Bring Together Flammable Gas And Air To Start A Fire. The End Result Is Combustion, which Gives Off A Lot Of Heat.

3). Expansion:

  • Gases that Come Out Of Combustion And Are Very Hot And Under A Lot Of Pressure Are Sent Into The Turbine. There Are Many Levels To The Turbine, And Each Level Has Rows Of Blades That Either Move Or Stay Still.
  •  As The Hot Gases Move Past The Blades, They Spin. The Rotary Motion Of Thermal Energy Is Converted Into The Mechanical Energy. Both Turbine And Compressor Are Powered By The Energy From The Expanding Gas. This Is Possible Because The two Machines Share A Shaft.

4). Exhaust:

  • After Going Through The Turbine Stages, The Gases Coming Out Of A Gas Turbine Are Moving Fast And Hot. Power Plants That Use A Combined Cycle May Send Their Hot Exhaust Gases Through A Heat Recovery Boiler To Make More Steam And Improve Their Efficiency.

How Does Gas A Turbine Work?

  • The Thermodynamic Process That The Gas Turbine Uses Is The Brayton Cycle (Without The Fourth Stage). Air And Fuel Are The Most Important Things A Gas Turbine Needs To Work. Most Of The Time, Natural Gas Is Used  As Fuel, But Sometimes Other Fuel Liquids Are Also Used. In The Beginning, Air Is Pulled Into The Turbine From One End, And The Turbine's Compressor Squeezes the Air.
  • When Air Is Pushed Together, Both Its Temperature And Pressure Go Up. After That, Fuel Is Injected Into The Turbine. Here, It Mixes With The Pressed Air And Starts To Burn. Chemicals that Store Energy The Best Ratio Of Air To Gas Depends On A Number Of Factors, Such As The Specific Heating Value Of The Gas, The Amount Of Water It Contains, And The Quality Of The Air Itself. When The Hot Gas From The Burning Mixture Hits the Blades Of the Turbine, They Spin Very Fast (About 3200RPM). This Is How We Go From Chemical Energy To Mechanical Energy. Most Of The Time, This Is How Jet Engines Works.  

  • In Power Plants, Gas Turbines Are Also Often Used. They Are An Important Part Of Combined-Cycle Power Plants, Which Turn Chemical Energy Into Mechanical Energy Before Turning It Into Electricity. To Sum Up, The Hot, Tightly Packed Gas Makes The Blades Spin Very Fast. Because Of This, The Driving Shaft Turns. Through A Gearbox, This Rotational Energy Is Sent To The Shaft Of The Generator, Which Is An Electrical Machine.
  •  Inside The Generator, Copper Wire Coils Wrap Around A Big Magnet. When Magnet Spins Quickly Enough To Make A Strong Magnetic Field, Which In Turn Lets Electrons Move, Electricity Is Made. The Waste Heat From The Turbine Can Be Used To Make Steam, Which Can Then Be Used To Power Another Turbine. Because Of This, Combining The Benefits Of Steam And Gas Turbines Would Make Power Generation More Efficient.

Types:

Gas Turbines Come In Many Different Styles, And Each One Is Made To Meet A Different Set Of Needs. Here Are Some Examples Of Gas Turbines:
  1. Industrial Gas Turbine
  2. Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine
  3. Open Cycle Gas Turbine
  4. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
  5. Simple Cycle Gas Turbine

1). Industrial Gas Turbine:

  • Most Industrial Gas Turbines Are Used To Make Power, Which Can Include Combined Heat And Power (CHP) Applications.
 
  • Large Places Like Factories, Hospitals, And Data Centers Use Them To Make Both Heat And Electricity.

2). Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine:

  • Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines Are Made To Make Power All The Time In Utility-Scale Power Plants.
  • In Combined Cycle Power Facilities, Where The Left Heat From A Gas Turbine Is Used To Make Steam That Drives A Steam Turbine To Make More Electricity, They Are Often Used.

3). Open Cycle Gas Turbine:

  • Open Cycle Gas Engines Can't Get Their Heat Back.
  • Most Of The Time, They Are Used To Make Power When There Is A Lot Of Demand And It Is Important To Start Up And Shutdown Quickly.

4). Combined Cycle Gas Turbine:

  • Combined Cycle Gas Turbines Are Hybrid Power Plants That Combine A Gas Turbine And A Steam Turbine Into A Single System. These Systems Are More Efficient Overall Because They Use The waste Heat From The Gas Turbine To Make Steam, Which Is Then Used To Power A Steam Turbine.

5). Simple Cycle Gas Turbine:

  • Even Without A Waste Heat Recovery System, Gas Turbines That Use A Simple Cycle May Be Able To Work On Their Own. These Systems Are Often Used When Making Electricity Is The Main Goal And Recovering Waste Heat Is Not A Big Deal.

Applications:

1). Power Generation:

  • In Power Plants, Gas Turbines Are Often Used To Create Electricity. In Combined-Cycle Power Plants, The Waste Heat From The Gas Turbine Can Be Used To Run A Steam Turbine, Which Boosts The Plant's Output Even More. Gas Turbines Are Often Used As Peaking Power Sources Because They Can Be Quickly Turned Up To Meet Sudden Increases In Energy Demand.

2). Aviation:

  • Gas Turbines Are The Most Common Way For Planes To Move In The Aviation Industry. They Give Planes, Helicopters, And Other Flying Machines The Power They Need To Move. Jet Engines Get Their Power From Gas Turbines.

3). Marine Propulsion:

  • Gas Turbines Are Used To Move Commercial Ships, Navy Ships, And Fast Boats. They Work well In Maritime Settings Because they Have High Amount Of Power For Their Weight And Move quickly.

4). Industrial Processes:

  • Gas Turbines Are Used For A Wide Range Of Industrial Tasks That Need Mechanical Power. They Are Used To Run Machines In The Petrochemical, Industrial, And Mining Sectors, Among Others.

5). Co-Generation (Combined Heat And Power):

  • In A Co-Generation (Combined Heat And Power) Plant, A Gas Turbine Can Be Used To Make Both Power And Heat At The Same Time. Running A Gas Turbine Gives Off Heat That Can Be Used To Heat Water And Buildings, As Well As In A Number Of Industrial Processes.

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