Reciprocating Pumps: Parts, Working And Applications

What Is a Reciprocating Pump?

  • A Positive Displacement Pump That Uses A Piston Or Pusher To Move Fluid Through A Device Is Called A Rotary Pump. It Works By Pulling In And Pushing Out Fluid In Several Back-And -Forth (Reciprocal) Motions. As The Piston Or Plunger Moves Back, It Forms A Vacuum That Pulls Fluid Into The Pump Chamber. When It Goes Forward, It Builds Up Pressure On The Fluid And Pushes It Out Through A Valve.
  • Reciprocating Pumps Are Used In Many Situations Where There Needs To Be Exact Control Over The Flow Of Fluid, High Pressure, And The Ability To Handle A Wide Range Of Fluids. In Businesses Like Oil And Gas, Petrochemicals, Power Production, And Water Treatment.

Types Of Reciprocating Pumps:

Reciprocating Pumps Classified In Two Major Types These Are,
  1. Single Acting Reciprocating Pump
  2. Double Acting Reciprocating Pump

1). Single Acting Reciprocating Pump:

  • Single-Acting Reciprocating Pumps Are A Type Of Reciprocating Pump In Which The Piston Or Plunger Only Moves In One Direction. In Other Words, The Pump Moves The Fluid Either Forward Or Backward, But Not In Both Directions.
  • These Pumps Can Be Used In A Wide Range Of Businesses And Situations, Like Chemical Dosing, Water Treatment, Lubrication Systems, And Small Scale Hydraulic Systems.

2). Double-Acting Reciprocating Pump:

  • A Double-Acting Reciprocating Pump Is A Positive Displacement Pump That Moves Back And Forth To Work. With The Help Of  A Piston Or Pusher, It Pumps Back And Forth.
  • Companies That Need Steady Flow, Like Oil And Gas, Petrochemicals, And Water Treatment, Often Use These Pumps. They Can Be Used To Move All Kinds Of Liquids, From Water To Thick Liquids.   

Main Parts Of The Reciprocating Pumps:

Some Of The Main Parts Of This Pump Are:
  1. Suction Pipe And Suction Valve
  2. Delivery Pipe And Delivery Valve
  3. Cylinder
  4. Piston And Piston Rings
  5. Connecting Rids
  6. Crank Shaft

1). Suction Pipe And Suction Valve:

  • When This Process Starts, The Fluid Goes Into The Suction Pipe, Which Is Also Where The Suction Valve Is Located. This Pressure Valve Only Lets Fluid Flow Up.

2). Delivery Pipe And Delivery Valve:

  • At The End Of The Process, The Fluid Leaves Through The Delivery Pipe And Delivery Valve. The Delivery Valve Is Connected To The Delivery Pipe. The Supply Opening Only Lets One Way Through As Well.

3). Cylinder:

  • It Is The Main Part  Of The Pump That Moves Back And Forth. The Piston And Delivery Pipe Are Linked To The Cylinder. The Cylinder  Creates The Pressure And Then Sends The Liquid Through The Delivery Pipe. It Is The Cylinder's Main Job.

4). Piston And Piston Rings:

  • For The Pump To Work Well, The Piston's Shape And Materials Are Very Important. Piston Rings Should Be Used To Seal The Piston And Connect It To The Pump. The Piston Rings Main Job Is To Keep The Piston And The Pump Tank Leaking. It Is Also Used To Grease Things, Move Heat, And Seal Things.

5). Connecting Rods:

  • The connecting rod's Major Job Is To Connecting The Piston To The engine. It Turns The Movement Of The Piston Back And Forth Into The Rotation Of The Engine.

6). Crank Shaft:

  • The Crankshaft is Linked To The Piston Rod, Which Moves The Piston Inside The Cylinder Forward And Backward. When The Engine Turns, The Piston Goes Forward And Backward. This Lets The Fluid That Has Been Under Pressure Escape. This Is What The Engine Is Mostly Used For.

Working Principle Of Reciprocating Pump:

  • When The Motor Is Turned On The Crank Will Start Rotating, And the Connecting Rod That Connects To The Piston. Then The Piston Will Move straight Forward.
  • This Makes The Suction Valve Open, And The Suction Pipe Forces Fluid From The Source Into The Cylinder.
  • As the Crank Moves Inside or Outside The Cylinder, The Piston Moves To Its Left And Pushes The Fluid In The Cylinder.
  • After That, Increase The Pressure, And The delivery Valve Will Open, Letting Fluid Out Through The Delivery Pipe.
  • Only Single Acting Rotary Pumps Were Used In The Processes That Came Before. When a double-acting rotary Pump Is Used, The Crank Turns At The Same Time To Make Two Strokes.

Maintenance Of Reciprocating Pumps:

Proper Care Helps The Pump Last Longer, Keep It From Breaking Down Unexpectedly, And Work At Its Best. Here Is An Overview Of How To Take Care Of Rotary Pumps:

1). Regular Inspection:

  • Do Regular Eye Checks To Look For Leaks, Signs Of Wear And Tear, And Any Damage Or Rust.
  • Make Sure That Aren't Any Strange Noises, Movements, Or Ways Of Working.

2). Lubrication:

  • Make Sure That Working Parts Like Pistons, Plungers, And Connecting Rods Are Well-oiled.
  • Use The Oils That The Maker Recommends And Do Them At The Times They Say To.

3). Seals And Gaskets:

  • Seals, Gaskets, And Packing Should Be Checked Often For Wear And Leaks.
  • Replace Old Or Broken Seals Right Away To Stop Fluid From Leaking.

4). Valve Maintenance:

  • Check And Clean Valves Often Because They Can Get Clogged With Dirt And Scale.
  • If  A Part Of A Valve Is Worn, Replace it so That The Seal Stays Good And The Flow Doesn't Stop.

5). Alignment And Vibration:

  • Make Sure That All Parts Are Properly Aligned To Keep Them From Wearing Out Too Quickly And From Vibrating Too Much.
  • Use Shaking Tracking To Find Problems Early And Fix Them.

6). Belts And Pulleys:

  • If A Belt Is Pulling The Pump, check the belt's Tightness, Wear, And Position.
  • Change The Belts And Tighten Them As Needed.

7). Cooling And Lubrication System:

  • Keep The Cooling And Lubrication Systems In Good Shape To Keep The Pump From Overheating And Make Sure It Works Well.
  • Clean Or Change The Filters, And Make Sure There Are No Jams In The Cooling System.


Here Are Some Good Things About Revolving Pumps: These Are,

  • Reciprocating Pumps, Which Are Used For High-Pressure Tasks In The Oil And Gas, Chemical, And Water Treatment Businesses.
  • Compared To Other Types Of Pumps, It Works More Efficiently.
  • It Is Made In A Very Simple Design.


  • When These Pumps Move Back And Forth, They Can Make A Lot Of  Noise.
  • It Makes A Pulsating Flow, Which Needs Extra Tools To Change to A Smooth Flow.
  • Flow Rate Control Is Harder To Do With These Pumps.


  • This Kind Of Pump is Used In Many Different Industries, Such As The Oil And Gas Industry, the Chemical Industry, The Water Treatment Industry, High-Pressure Cleaning, The Pharmaceutical Industry, And So On. 
  • In The Oil And Gas Industry, It Is Used To Compress Natural Gas And Move Crude Oil.
  • In The Chemical Industry, To Move Chemicals, Acids, And Solvents From One Place To Another.
  • High-Pressure Cleaning, Filtering, And Adding Chemicals Are All Used In Water Treatment Plants.
  • In The Pharmacy Business, Especially When It Comes To Making, Measuring, And Giving.
  • In the Mining Industry, To Move Slurry And Process The Minerals.
  • The Water Is Used To Feed The Boilers At Power Plants And In Some High-pressure Applications.    

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