Centrifugal Compressor: Parts, Working And Applications

What Is A Centrifugal Compressor?

  • A Centrifugal Compressor Is A Type Of Mechanical Device That Is Used In Many Industrial Settings To Squeeze Gases. It Works By Letting Gas In Through An Opening And Speeding It Up With A Spinning Propeller. The Fan Is Made Up Of Bent Blades That Force The Gas Outward, Which Speeds It Up. As The Gas Passes Through The Turbine, Its Kinetic Energy Is Turned Into Potential Energy. This Causes The Temperature And Pressure To Go Up.
  • Centrifugal Compressors Are Often Used For Things Like Cooling, Air Conditioning, Gas Turbine Engines, And Industrial Production. They Are Best For Uses That Need A Steady Flow Of Gas At Low Pressure And A Fast Flow. One Of The Good Things About Centrifugal Fans Is That They Are Made In A Simple Way That Makes Them Easy To Keep And Run.

Parts Of Centrifugal Compressor:

There Are Many Parts To A Centrifugal Compressor. This Is,
  1. Impeller
  2. Diffuser
  3. Volute Casing
  4. Inlet Guide Vanes
  5. Shaft And Bearings
  6. Seals
  7. Casing And Casing Splits
  8. Discharge Nozzle
  9. Lubrication And Cooling Systems

1). Impeller:

  • The Impeller Is A Part That Spins And Has Curve-Shaped Vanes Or Blades. During Rotation, It Speeds Up The Gas And Raises The Pressure Inside The System.

2). Diffuser:

  • A Fixed Housing Unit Called A Diffuser And It Holds By The Impeller. Slowing Down The Fast-Moving Gas Changes Its Kinetic Energy Into Pressure Energy. The Diffuser Acts As A Path For The Gas, Leading It To The Next Step To).  The Outlet.

3). Volute Casing:

  • In Some Types Of Centrifugal Compressors, A Volute Casing Is Used Instead Of A Diffuser. The Volute, Which Is Shaped Like A Spiral, Collects The Compressed Gas And Turns Its Kinetic Energy Into Pressure Energy Before Letting It Out.

4). Inlet Guide Vanes:

  • Some Centrifugal Compressors Have Intake Guiding Vanes At The Point Where The Air Goes Into The Compressor. By Moving These Vanes, The Gas Flow And Efficiency Of The Compressor Can Be Fine-Tuned.

5). Shaft And Bearings:

  • An Electric Motor, Gas Turbine, Or Other Source Of Rotational Power Is Connected To a Shaft That Holds The Impeller. Bearings Hold Up The Shaft And Let It Turn Without Getting Suck.

6). Seals:

  • Centrifugal Compressors Use Many Different Types Of Seals To Keep Gas From Escaping As It Moves Between Moving And Stationary Parts. Two Common Types of Seals Are Available These Are, 
  1. Carbon Ring Seals
  2. Labyrinth Seals 

7). Casing And Casing Splits:

  • All Of The Inner Parts Of The Compressor Are Safe Inside Its Protective Housing. This Is Called Casing. Large Compressor Cases Are Sometimes Split Into Horizontal And Vertical Parts So That Repairs And Replacements Can Be Done More Easily.

8). Discharge Nozzle:

  • The Gas Comes Out Of The Compressor Through The Discharge Nozzle And Goes Into The Next Pipe Or System.

9). Lubrication And Cooling Systems:

  • Centrifugal Compressors Generate A Lot Of Heat. To Keep Them Running Smoothly, They Need To Be Cooled And Oiled Separately.

How Do Centrifugal Compressors Work?

  • When A Centrifugal Compressor First Turned On, It Draws Air From A Storage Tank Or Other Nearby Source.
  • When Air Goes Into A Compressor, The First Thing It Does Is Go Through The Impeller. The Impeller Has A Number Of Radial Blades That Also Turn In The Same Direction As The Impeller.
  • Centrifugal Force Acts On The Air As It Flows Past The Radial Blades Of The Impeller. When Air Gets Stuck Between The Impeller Blades, The Kinetic Energy That They Give Off Speeds Up The Air.
  • Air Goes Through The Impeller And Then Into The Diffuser. This Diffuser Doesn't Have Any Moving Parts. As Air Moves Through The Diffuser, Its Speed Slowly Slows Down.
  • Bernoulli's Principle Says That The Square Of Speed Is The Opposite Of How Much Pressure There Is. Before Air Is Sucked Into The Center Of The Impeller, It Goes Through The Diffuser Or Volute Casing, Where Its Accelerated Speed Is Changed Into Pressure Energy. Most Of The Time, The Increase In Pressure At The Diffuser Will Be Close To The Same As The Increase At The Impeller.


  • Industrial Processes And HVAC Systems, Which Need High Flow Rates, May Benefit From The High Volume Flow That centrifugal Compressors Offer. 
  • Compared To Other Types Of Compressors, Centrifugal Compressors Are Often Smaller And Lighter, Which Makes Them Easier To Install And Take Up Less Space.
  • There Are Fewer Moving Parts Than Reciprocating Compressors, They Need Less Care And Are Less Likely To Be Out Of Service For Repairs.
  • Vibration-Free Operation Of Centrifugal Compressors Has Two benefits:
  1. Less Noise
  2. Less Wear And Tear On The Parts.
  • They Work Very Well In Places With A Lot Of Pressure, Like The Chemical Processing And Oil And Gas Industries
  • Centrifugal Compressors May Save Money In The Long Run If They Are Used In Places That Are Similar To What They Were Made For.


  • In Smaller-Scale Applications, A Centrifugal Compressor's Higher Initial Cost Compared To Other Types Of Compressors May Be A Deciding Factor.
  • They Have a Smaller Range Of Use Than Other Types Of Compressors, And If They Are Used In A Setting Other Than What They Were Made For, Their Efficiency Might Drop Dramatically.
  • Centrifugal Compressors Tend To Have Lower compression ratios Than Reciprocating Compressors, Which Could Be A Problem In High-Pressure Settings.
  • Even Though They Need Less Regular Maintenance Than Some Other Options, They May Be, More Expensive To Keep up. Because They Have More Expensive Parts And Require A Lot Of Work To Fix.
  • Centrifugal Compressors Are Especially Vulnerable To Damage From Liquids Because Even A Small Amount Of Liquid Inside The Compressor Can Mess Up The Impellers And Other Parts Inside. 


  • Centrifugal Compressors Are Used To Squeeze And Move The Gas In Air Conditioning And Refrigeration System. 
  • They Are First Stage Of Compression In Gas Turbines, Which Makes Power More Efficient.
  • Centrifugal Compressors Are Used In the Petrochemical Industry To Compress, Boost, and Transport Gases.
  • Centrifugal Compressors Are Used In Compressed Air systems to Pressurize Air So That It Can Be Used In Pneumatic Tools And Machinery In Manufacturing And Other Industrial Settings.
  • They Are Essential For Making Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Which Is Used To Cool And Compress Gas
  •  Large-Scale Industrial Refrigeration Systems, Such As Those Used For Cold Storage And Food Processing, Use Centrifugal Compressors.

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